How does flue gas desulfurization work

Flue-gas desulfurization FGD is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide SO 2 from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plantsand from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes such as waste incineration.

how does flue gas desulfurization work

Since stringent environmental regulations limiting SO 2 emissions have been enacted in many countries, SO 2 is being removed from flue gases by a variety of methods. Common methods used:. For a typical coal-fired power station, flue-gas desulfurization FGD may remove 90 percent or more of the SO 2 in the flue gases.

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Methods of removing sulfur dioxide from boiler and furnace exhaust gases have been studied for over years. Early ideas for flue gas desulfurization were established in England around With the construction of large-scale power plants in England in the s, the problems associated with large volumes of SO 2 from a single site began to concern the public. The SO 2 emissions problem did not receive much attention untilwhen the House of Lords upheld the claim of a landowner against the Barton Electricity Works of the Manchester Corporation for damages to his land resulting from SO 2 emissions.

Flue-gas desulfurization

Shortly thereafter, a press campaign was launched against the erection of power plants within the confines of London. This outcry led to the imposition of SO 2 controls on all such power plants. These three early large-scale FGD installations were suspended during World War IIbecause the characteristic white vapour plumes would have aided location by enemy aircraft. Inthe U. The law authorized development of federal regulations in the United States covering emissions from both stationary industrial and mobile sources, which were subsequently published by the U.

InCongress amended the law to require more stringent controls on air emissions. This committee first convened in with the purpose of developing a standardized "procedure for conducting and reporting performance tests of FGD systems and reporting the results in terms of the following categories: a emissions reduction, b consumable and utilities, c waste and by-product characterization and amount.

This standard is currently in use today by companies around the world. If a scrubber system is not functioning probably and the IMO procedures for such malfunctions are not adhered toport States can sanction the ship. The United Nations Convention on the Law Of the Sea also bestows port States with a right to regulate and even ban the use of open loop scrubber systems within ports and internal waters. Fossil fuels such as coal and oil can contain a significant amount of sulfur.

When fossil fuels are burned, about 95 percent or more of the sulfur is generally converted to sulfur dioxide SO 2. Such conversion happens under normal conditions of temperature and of oxygen present in the flue gas.

However, there are circumstances under which such reaction may not occur. SO 2 can further oxidize into sulfur trioxide SO 3 when excess oxygen is present and gas temperatures are sufficiently high. Another way that SO 3 can be formed is through catalysis by metals in the fuel.

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Such reaction is particularly true for heavy fuel oil, where a significant amount of vanadium is present.Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website.

See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. Learn more. Published on Feb 16, SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Home Explore. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Flue gas desulphurization detailed process. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. See How. Marilyn Francis Hello! I can recommend a site that has helped me. Sonia Cooley panels searching for survey takers! Show More. Himanshu Panchal. No Downloads.Desulfurization is the process of removing sulfur from something to prevent contamination.

Also known as hydrodesulfurization or HDS, this chemical process reduces the sulfur dioxide emissions and converts them to sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid is then used in car batteries and fertilizer. The most commonly required desulfurization process is in natural gas. Additional desulfurizing is required for flue gas, coaland oil. Natural gas desulfurization is typically accomplished by adsorption.

A bed of activated carbon is used as the filter for natural gas pipelines. As the natural gas runs through the pipeline, it runs through the activated carbon at an established interval. The sulfur is left behind and adsorbed into the activated carbon.

Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization with Lime/Limestone Slurry

Tests are performed regularly to ensure the levels of sulfur remain in the acceptable level. Flue gas is the byproduct of power plants and refers to the exhaust from burning fossil fuels. Flue gas desulfurization is required to reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide getting into the air. It is a large factor in the formation of acid rain.

A device called a scrubber is used to remove sulfur from flue gas. It works by combining the sulfur with lime or limestone to create a compound or slurry.

Flue Gas Desulfurization process at Great Plains Synfuels Plant

The slurry is then removed by absorbing the slurry and converting it to gypsumwhich is used to make wallboard or cement. Coal desulfurization is achieved in three ways.

The most common method is separation by density. Shaking tables or jigs sift the material and separate it into smaller particles. The impurities are then removed. Commercial practices for large amounts of coal employ a coal spiral or cyclone that uses centrifugal force to separate the coal from sulfur.

Another method is through flotation or flocculation. In this method, the coal is submerged in liquid. Mineral matter is lighter than coal so it will float to the top, allowing the pollutants to be skimmed off. A final method is magnetic susceptibility.

This method runs an electric current through the coal, which attracts pyrite sulfur and only works on fine particle coal.The selection of an additive which can be added dry or as a slurry is made on the basis of project-specific boundary conditions.

To remove sulphur oxides SOx and other acidic components HCl, HFthe flue gas is brought into intensive contact with a slurry containing the additive in the absorption zone. In this way, the largest possible surface area is made available for mass transfer. In the absorption zone, the SO2 from the flue gas reacts with the absorbent to form calcium sulphite CaSO3.

The limestone slurry containing calcium sulphite is collected in the absorber sump. The limestone used for cleaning the flue gases is continuously added to the absorber sump to ensure that the cleaning capacity of the absorber remains constant. The slurry is then pumped into the absorption zone again. By blowing air into the absorber sump, gypsum is formed from the calcium sulphite and is removed from the process as a component of the slurry.

Depending on the quality requirements for the end product, further treatment is carried out to produce marketable gypsum. In wet flue gas desulphurisation, open spray tower absorbers have prevailed which are divided into two principal zones.

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These are the absorption zone exposed to the flue gas and the absorber sump, in which the limestone slurry is trapped and collected. To prevent deposits in the absorber sump, the slurry is suspended by means of mixing mechanisms. The flue gas flows into the absorber above the fluid level and then through the absorption zone, which comprises overlapping spraying levels and a mist eliminator.

The limestone slurry sucked from the absorber sump is finely sprayed co-currently and counter-currently to the flue gas through the spraying levels.

The arrangement of the nozzles in the spraying tower is essential importance to the removal efficiency of the absorber.

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Flow optimisation is therefore extremely necessary. In the mist eliminator, the drops carried from the absorption zone by the flue gas are returned to the process.

how does flue gas desulfurization work

At the outlet of the absorber, the clean gas is saturated and can be directly removed via a cooling tower or wet stack. Optionally the clean gas can be heated and routed to a dry stack. The slurry removed from the absorber sump undergoes preliminary dewatering by way of hydrocyclones. Generally this pre-concentrated slurry is further dewatered through filtration.

The water, obtained from this process, can be largely returned to the absorber. A small portion is removed in the circulatory process in the form of waste water flow. Plant Engineering In wet flue gas desulphurisation, open spray tower absorbers have prevailed which are divided into two principal zones. This site uses cookies.

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By continuing to browse the site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies.Global regulation changes demand reduction of the emissions from power plants. Flue gas desulfurization FGD is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide SO 2 from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, as well as from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes.

When using a wet FGD scrubbing process, wastewater is generated, which must be treated before disposal FGD wastewater contains high concentrations of sulfates, calcium, magnesium, heavy metals, TSS and ammonia. ZLD water treatment solution can also be achieved based on chemical and thermal treatments. The main challenge in this evaluation is being able to provide a desalination solution able to compete with the commonly used RO plants.

The paper analyzes the ways that different researchers have selected to overcome the phenomenon of CP, and presents an overview of the existing RO membranes from the point of view of their suitability for use in Forward Osmosis power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis PRO can be implemented on a number of water types, using different technologies and achieving various power outcomes.

This paper presents the three most practical options. The facility design is based on the concept of a Three-Center Design: a pumping center, a membrane center and an energy recovery center.

This paper describes the main components of a successful B. We use Cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Learn how IDE's CTBD Water Treatment technology can help your plant maximize recovery, minimize operational costs and comply with the strictest regulatory requirements. All right reserved. Site Map Privacy Policy.Up Next Tracee Ellis Ross writes book on harassment Play Video Don't Play Video duration00:54 Tracee Ellis Ross writes book on harassment Filling in for Jimmy Kimmel, the 'Blackish' star reads from her new children's book 'The Handsy Man', aimed at curtailing "a systemic problem about the abuse of power that takes place across all industries".

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how does flue gas desulfurization work

By Peter Hayter Updated: 00:47 GMT, 14 September 2010 A senior betting industry expert and adviser to world cricket's Anti-Corruption Unit last night urged them to add the first ball wide from Pakistan fast bowler Mohammed Aamer to the three no-balls under investigation from the tarnished Lord's Test.

Mark Davies was one of the founders of Betfair, the world's largest internet betting exchange, and has advised the Unit on all aspects of the sport's links with the gaming industry. He believes the International Cricket Council inquiry into allegations of bowling no-balls to order - against suspended Pakistan trio Mohammad Aamer, Mohammad Asif and Test captain Salman Butt - should also focus on the opening delivery of the match by Amir, a wide that cost five runs.

The ICC inquiry is running parallel to Scotland Yard's criminal investigation which has led to Aamer, Asif and Butt being interviewed under caution, with a fourth tourist, Wahib Riaz due for interview on Thursday. The delivery in question was bowled by the left-arm paceman Aamer, 18, over the wicket from the Pavilion End to England captain Andrew Strauss.

It landed a foot outside leg stump and carried on, with the angle, passing the stumps by at least a yard on its way to the boundary. Wicketkeeper Kamran Akmal, along with Butt currently under ICC investigation over possible spot-fixing at the Asia Cup and the World Twenty20, made no attempt to reach the ball as it sailed to the fine leg boundary.

Umpire Billy Bowden signalled four wides which, with the one-run penalty for the wide itself, added up to five runs from the first ball of the match. Fallen idols: The three Pakistani cricketers at the centre of the match fixing allegations, (left to right) Mohammad Aamer, Mohammad Asif and Salman Butt, leave Heathrow Airport for LahoreThe bowling of a wide off the first ball has long been understood in cricket circles as open to manipulation for spread betting and spot- fixing.

First ball nerves and, in this case, the need to adjust to the slope at Lord's means such a delivery is not uncommon there.We update once a month what our profits (or losses) have been for that particular month. Since we started this new setup 1st August 2016, the horse racing profits are at the top of the page and you can download the results in full here Why trust Punters Lounge horse racing tips. That's a fair question as there are many websites willing to scam you unfortunately.

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What is Desulfurization?

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